Part Ⅰ Listening Comprehension (40 min) 

In Sections A,B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your coloured answer sheet.?

SECTION A TALK
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the talk.
1.
A) the coordination based on individual actions      B) the number of individual participants?      C) the necessity of individual actions      D) the requirements for participants?   

2.
A) individual      B) combined      C) distinct      D) social?   

3.
A) the manner of language use   
B) the topic and content of speech?   
C) the interactions between speaker and audience   
D) the relationship between speaker and audience?   

4.
A) hide their real intentions   
B) voice others’ intentions?   
C) play double roles on and off stage   
D) only imitate other people in life?   

5.
A) the absence of spontaneity   
B) the presence of individual actions?   
C) the lack of real intentions   
D) the absence of audience??   

SECTION B INTERVIEW

Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 75 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the interview.
6.
A) Students worked very hard.   
B) Students felt they needed a second degree.?   
C) Education was not career?oriented.   
D) There were many specialized subjects.?   

7.
A) To turn out an adequate number of elite for the society.?   
B) To prepare students for their future career.?   
C) To offer practical and utilitarian courses in each programme.?   
D) To set up as many technical institutions as possible.?   

8.
A) require good education   
B) are secondary to education?   
C) don’t call for good education   
D) don’t conflict with education?   

9.
A) Shifting from one programme to another.   
B) Working out ways to reduce student number.?   
C) Emphasizing better quality of education.   
D) Setting up stricter examination standards.?   

10.
A) those who can adapt to different professions   
B) those who have a high flexibility of mind?   
C) those who are thinkers, historians and philosophers   
D) those who possess only highly specialized skills??

SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST 

Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 45 seconds to answer the questions.
Now listen to the news.

11. Which of the following regions in the world will witness the sharpest
drop in life expectancy?? 
A) Latin America.   
B) Sub?Saharan Africa.?   
C) Asia.   
D) The Caribbean.?   

12. According to the news, which country will experience small life expectancy drop?? 
A) Burma.   
B) Botswana.   
C) Cambodia.   
D) Thailand.?   

13. The countries that are predicted to experience negative population growth are mainly in ____? 
A) Asia.   
B) Africa.   
C) Latin America.   
D) The Caribbean.??   

14. The trade dispute between the European Union and the US was caused by ____.? 
A) US refusal to accept arbitration by WTO   
B) US imposing tariffs on European steel?   
C) US refusal to pay compensation to EU   
D) US refusal to lower import duties on EU products?   

15. Who will be consulted first before the EU list is submitted to WTO?? 
A) EU member states.   
B) The United States.?   
C) WTO.   
D) The steel corporations.??

SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING

In this section you will hear a mini?lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening to the lecture, take notes on the important points. Your notes will not be marked, but you will need them to complete a 15?minute gap?filling task on ANSWER SHEET ONE after the mini lecture. Use the blank sheet for note taking.


Part Ⅱ Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:
For a wrong word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/”and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.??

Example?
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, (1) an
it never buys things in finished form and hangs (2) never
them on the wall. When a natural history museum?
wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. (3)exhibit?
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.

  
One of the most important non-legislative functions of the U.S Congress?
is the power to investigate. This power is usually delegated to committees - either?
standing committees, special committees set for a specific (1)____?
purpose, or joint committees consisted of members of both houses. (2)____?
Investigations are held to gather information on the need for?
future legislation, to test the effectiveness of laws already passed,?
to inquire into the qualifications and performance of members and?
officials of the other branches, and in rare occasions, to lay the (3)____?
groundwork for impeachment proceedings. Frequently, committees?
rely outside experts to assist in conducting investigative hearings (4)____?
and to make out detailed studies of issues. (5)____?
There are important corollaries to the investigative power. One?
is the power to publicize investigations and its results. Most (6)____?
committee hearings are open to public and are reported (7)____?
widely in the mass media. Congressional investigations?
nevertheless represent one important tool available to lawmakers (8)____?
to inform the citizenry and to arouse public interests in national issues.
(9)____?
Congressional committees also have the power to compel?
testimony from unwilling witnesses, and to cite for contempt?
of Congress witnesses who refuse to testify and for perjury?
these who give false testimony. (10)____

Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)  (開始Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)計時)

In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple?choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

  
TEXT A
Farmers in the developing world hate price fluctuations. It makes it hard to plan ahead. But most of them have little choice: they sell at the price the market sets. Farmers in Europe, the U.S. and Japan are luckier: they receive massive government subsidies in the form of guaranteed prices or direct handouts. Last month U.S. President Bush signed a new farm bill that gives American farmers $190 billion over the next 10 years, or $83 billion more than they had been scheduled to get, and pushes U.S. agricultural support close to crazy European levels. Bush said the step was necessary to “promote farmer independence and preserve the farm way of life for generations”. It is also designed to help the Republican Party win control of the Senate in November’s mid?term elections.?
Agricultural production in most poor countries accounts for up to 50% of GDP, compared to only 3% in rich countries. But most farmers in poor countries grow jus
t enough for themselves and their families. Those who try exporting to the West find their goods whacked with huge tariffs or competing against cheaper subsidized goods. In 1999 the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development concluded that for each dollar developing countries receive in aid they lose up to $14 just because of trade barriers imposed on the export of their manufactured goods. It’s not as if the developing world wants any favours, says Gerald Ssendwula, Uganda’s Minister of Finance. “What we want is for the rich countries to let us compete.”?
Agriculture is one of the few areas in which the Third World can compete. Land and labour are cheap, and as farming methods develop, new technologies should improve output. This is no pie?in?the?sky speculation. The biggest success in Kenya’s economy over the past decade has been the boom in exports of cut flowers and vegetables to Europe. But that may all change in 2008, when Kenya will be slightly too rich to qualify for the “least?developed country” status that allows African producers to avoid paying stiff European import duties on selected agricultural products. With trade barriers in place, the horticulture industry in Kenya will shrivel as quickly as a discarded rose. And while agriculture exports remain the great hope for poor countries, reducing trade barriers in other sectors also works: Americas African Growth and Opportunity Act, which cuts duties on exports of everything from handicrafts to shoes, has proved a boon to Africa’s manufacturers. The lesson: the Third World can prosper if the rich world gives it a fair go.?
This is what makes Bush’s decision to increase farm subsidies last month all the
more depressing. Poor countries have long suspected that the rich world urges rade liberalization only so it can wangle its way into new markets. Such suspicions caused the Seattle trade talks to break down three years ago. But last November members of the World Trade Organization, meeting in Doha, Qatar, finally agreed to a new round of talks designed to open up global trade in agriculture and
textiles. Rich countries assured poor countries, that their concerns were finally being addressed. Bush’s handout last month makes a lie of America’s commitment to those talks and his personal devotion to free trade.?

16. By comparison, farmers ____ receive more government subsidies than others.?

A) in the developing world   
B) in Japan   
C) in Europe   
D) in America?   

17. In addition to the economic considerations, there is a ____ motive behind Bush’s signing of the new farm bill.?

A) partisan   
B) social   
C) financial   
D) cultural?   

18. The message the writer attempts to convey throughout the passage is that ____.?

A) poor countries should be given equal opportunities in trade?   
B) “the least?developed country” status benefits agricultural countries?   
C) poor countries should remove their suspicions about trade liberalization?   
D) farmers in poor countries should also receive the benefit of subsidies   

19. The writer’s attitude towards new farm subsidies in the U.S. is ____.?

A) favourable   
B) ambiguous   
C) critical   
D) reserved??   


TEXT BOscar Wilde said that work is the refuge of people who have nothing better to do. If so, Americans are now among the world’s saddest refugees. Factory workers in the United States are working longer hours than at any time in the past half?century. America once led the rich world in cutting the average working week—from 70 hours in 1850 to less than 40 hours by the 1950s. It seemed natural that as people grew richer they would trade extra earnings for more leisure. Since the 1970s, however, the hours clocked up by American workers have risen, to an average of 42 this year in manufacturing.?Several studies suggest that something similar is happening outside manufacturing: Americans are spending more time at work than they did 20 years ago. Executives and lawyers boast of 80?hour weeks. On holiday, they seek out fax machines and phones as eagerly as Germans bag the best sun?loungers. Yet working time in Europe and Japan continues to fall. In Germany’s engineering industry the working week is to be trimmed from 36 to 35 hours next year. Most Germans get six weeks’ paid annual holiday; even the Japanese now take three weeks. Americans still make do with just two.?Germany responds to this contrast with its usual concern about whether people’s aversion to work is damaging its competitiveness. Yet German workers, like the Japanese, seem to be acting sensibly: as their incomes rise, they can achieve a better standard of living with fewer hours of work. The puzzle is why America, the world’s richest country, sees things differently. It is a puzzle with sinistersocial implications. Parents spend less time with their children, who may be left alone at home for longer. Is it just a coincidence that juvenile crime is on the rise??Some explanations for America’s time at work fail to stand up to scrutiny. One blames weak trade unions that leave workers open to exploitation. Are workers being forced by cost?cutting firms to toil harder just to keep their jobs? A recent study by two American economists, Richard Freeman and Linda Bell, suggests not: when asked, Americans actually want to work longer hours. Most German workers, in contrast, would rather work less.?Then, why do Americans want to work harder? One reason may be that the real earnings of many Americans have been stagnant or falling during the past two decades. People work longer merely to maintain their living standards. Yet many higher?skilled workers, who have enjoyed big increases in their real pay, have been working harder too. Also, one reason for the slow growth of wages has been the rapid growth in employment—which is more or less where the argument began.?Taxes may have something to do with it. People who work an extra hour in America are allowed to keep more of their money than those who do the same in Germany. Falls in marginal tax rates in America since the 1970s have made it all the more profitable to work longer.?None of these answers really explains why the century?long decline in working hours has gone into reverse in America but not elsewhere (though Britain shows signs of following America’s lead). Perhaps cultural differences—the last refuge of the defeated economist—are at play. Economists used to believe that once workers earned enough to provide for their basic needs and allow for a few luxuries, their incentive to work would be eroded, like lions relaxing after a kill. But humans are more susceptible to advertising than lions. Perhaps clever marketing has ensured that “basic needs”—for a shower with built?in TV, for a rocket?propelled car—expand continuously. Shopping is already one of America’s most popular pastimes. But it requires money—hence more work and less leisure.?Or try this: the television is not very good, and baseball and hockey keep being wiped out by strikes. Perhaps Wilde was right. Maybe Americans have nothing better to do.?
20. In the United States, working longer hours is ____.?

A) confined to the manufacturing industry   
B) a traditional practice in some sectors?   
C) prevalent in all sectors of society   
D) favoured by the economists?   

21. According to the third paragraph, which might be one of the consequences of working longer hours??

A) Rise in employees’ working efficiency.   
B) Rise in the number of young offenders.?   
C) Rise in people’s living standards.   
D) Rise in competitiveness.?   

22. Which of the following is the cause of working longer hours stated by
the writer??


A) Expansion of basic needs.   
B) Cultural differences.?   
C) Increase in real earnings.   
D) Advertising.??   


TEXT CThe fox really exasperated them both. As soon as they had let the fowls out, inthe early summer mornings, they had to take their guns and keep guard; and thenagain as soon as evening began to mellow, they must go once more. And he was so sly. He slid along in the deep grass; he was difficult as a serpent to see. And he seemed to circumvent the girls deliberately. Once or twice March had caught sight of the white tip of his brush, or the ruddy shadow of him in the deep grass, and she had let fire at him. But he made no account of this.?The trees on the wood?edge were a darkish, brownish green in the full light—for it was the end of August. Beyond, the naked, copper?like shafts and limbs of the pine trees shone in the air. Nearer the rough grass, with its long, brownish stalks all agleam, was full of light. The fowls were round about—the ducks were still swimming on the pond under the pine trees. March looked at it all, saw it all, and did not see it. She heard Banford speaking to the fowls in the distance—and she did not hear. What was she thinking about? Heaven knows. Her consciousness was, as it were, held back.?She lowered her eyes, and suddenly saw the fox. He was looking up at her. His chin was pressed down, and his eyes were looking up. They met her eyes. And he knew her. She was spellbound—she knew he knew her. So he looked into her eyes, and her soul failed her. He knew her, he has not daunted.?She struggled, confusedly she came to herself, and saw him making off, with slow leaps over some fallen boughs, slow, impudent jumps. Then he glanced over his shoulder, and ran smoothly away. She saw his brush held smooth like a feather, she saw his white buttocks twinkle. And he was gone, softly, soft as the wind.?She put her gun to her shoulder, but even then pursed her mouth, knowing it was nonsense to pretend to fire. So she began to walk slowly after him, in the direction he had gone, slowly, pertinaciously. She expected to find him. In her heart she was determined to find him. What she would do when she saw him again she did not consider. But she was determined to find him. So she walked abstractedly about on the edge of the wood, with wide, vivid dark eyes, and a faint flush in her cheeks. She did not think. In strange mindlessness she walked hither and thither...?As soon as supper was over, she rose again to go out, without saying why.?She took her gun again and went to look for the fox. For he had lifted his eyesupon her, and his knowing look seemed to have entered her brain. She did not somuch think of him: she was possessed by him. She saw his dark, shrewd, unabashedeye looking into her, knowing her. She felt him invisibly master her spirit. She knew the way he lowered his chin as he looked up, she knew his muzzle, the golden brown, and the greyish white. And again she saw him glance over his shoulder at her, half inviting, half contemptuous and cunning. So she went, with her great startled eyes glowing, her gun under her arm, along the wood edge. Meanwhilethe night fell, and a great moon rose above the pine trees.?
23. At the beginning of the story, the fox seems to the all EXCEPT ____.?

A) cunning   
B) fierce   
C) defiant   
D) annoying?   

24. As the story proceeds, March begins to feel under the spell of ____.?

A) the light   
B) the trees   
C) the night   
D) the fox?   

25. Gradually March seems to be in a state of ____.?

A) blankness   
B) imagination   
C) sadness   
D) excitement?   

26. At the end of the story, there seems to be a sense of ____ between March and the fox.?

A) detachment   
B) anger   
C) intimacy   
D) conflict?   

27. The passage creates an overall impression of ____.?

A) mystery   
B) horror   
C) liveliness   
D) contempt??   


TEXT DThe banners are packed, the tickets booked. The glitter and white overalls havebeen bought, the gas masks just fit and the mobile phones are ready. All that remains is to get to the parties.?This week will see a feast of pan?European protests. It started on Bastille Day, last Saturday, with the French unions and immigrants on the streets and the first demonstrations in Britain and Germany about climate change. It will continue tomorrow and Thursday with environmental and peace rallies against President Bush. But the big one is in Genoa, on Friday and Saturday, where the G8 leaders will meet behind the lines of 18,000 heavily armed police.?Unlike Prague, Gothenburg, Cologne or Nice, Genoa is expected to be Europe’s Seattle, the coming together of the disparate strands of resistance to corporate globalisation.?Neither the protesters nor the authorities know what will happen, but some things are predictable. Yes, there will be violence and yes, the mass media will focus on it. What should seriously concern the G8 is not so much the violence, the numbers in the streets or even that they themselves look like idiots hiding behind the barricades, but that the deep roots of a genuine new version of internationalism are growing.?For the first time in a generation, the international political and economic condition is in the dock. Moreover, the protesters are unlikely to go away, their confidence is growing rather than waning, their agendas are merging, the protests are spreading and drawing in all ages and concerns.?No single analysis has drawn all the strands of the debate together. In the meantime, the global protest “movement” is developing its own language, texts, agendas, myths, heroes and villains. Just as the G8 leaders, world bodies and businesses talk increasingly from the same script, so the protesters’ once disparatepolitical and social analyses are converging. The long?term project of governments and world bodies to globalise capital and development is being mirrored by the globalisation of protest.?But what happens next? Governments and world bodies are unsure which way to turn. However well they are policed, major protests reinforce the impression of indifferent elites, repression of debate, overreaction to dissent, injustice and unaccountable power.?Their options—apart from actually embracing the broad agenda being put to them—are to retreat behind even higher barricades, repress dissent further, abandon global meetings altogether or, more likely, meet only in places able to physically resist the masses.?Brussels is considering building a super fortress for international meetings. Genoa may be the last of the European super?protests.?
28. According to the context, the word “parties” at the end of the first paragraph refers to ____.?

A) the meeting of the G8 leaders   
B) the protests on Bastille Day?   
C) the coming pan?European protests   
D) the big protest to be held in Genoa?   

29. According to the passage, economic globalisation is paralleled by ____.?

A) the emerging differences in the global protest movement?   
B) the disappearing differences in the global protest movement?   
C) the growing European concern about globalisation?   
D) the increase in the number of protesters?   

30. According to the last paragraph, what is Brussels considering doing??

A) Meeting in places difficult to reach.   
B) Further repressing dissent.?   
C) Accepting the protesters’ agenda.   
D) Abandoning global meetings.   

(結束Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (30 min)計時) 

SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)  (開始SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 MIN)計時)

In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple?choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

  
TEXT E First read the question. 31.The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? A.demonstrate how to prevent crime B.show the seriousness of crime? C.look into the causes of crime D.call for more government efforts? Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31.? For three weeks, every night at 11 p.m., correspondents, officers and judges from justice courts, police departments and prisons, psychiatrists, criminologists, victims and even criminals in prisons made their appearance on TV to debate on a topic “Crime in the United States”.? Indeed, crime has been disturbing the American people and has become a serious social problem just next to the unemployment problem. Some figures are terrifying : 1 of 4 Americans has been a victim of some kind of crimes; nearly 22 million crimecases occurred last year throughout the country. A simple arithmetic calculation indicates that on average, a crime is being committed in every 2 seconds. Now the Americans are living in a horrible environment. Their safety and property are threatened by various crimes: robbery, theft, rape, kidnapping, murder, arson, vandalism and violence.? The most worrisome problem comes from the fact that about one?third of crime cases were committed by the juvenile and 53% of criminals in jails are youngsters below 25. A poll indicates that about 73% of citizens said they avoided teenagers in streets, especially at night.? To protect themselves from crime, according to a released figure, 52% of Americans keep guns at home. But some gun owners turn out to be potential criminals. Some people demand that strict law for gun control be enforced; but others oppose the ban of gun. No decision is in sight.? Some experts said poverty, unemployment and racial discrimination are the cause of crime. They cited figures to show that 47% of crime cases were committed by t he black, though they account for only about 12% of the population of the nation . Others argued that about 54% of convicted criminals came from families associated with these evils.? The American state government and federal government spend billions of dollars each year in maintaining the police departments and jails. But police authorities complain that they have not sufficient well?trained hands and advanced equipment to detect and stop crimes. Several cases of criminal insurgence were reported as a result of resentment at overcrowded prisons. Taxpayers complain that they pay more and more tax but receive less and less protection from crime for their lives and property.? Though the host of the live TV programme made great efforts to search for a solution, so far no participant could put forward a measure that was approved by most of the attendants.
31. The main purpose of the passage is to ____.? 

A) demonstrate how to prevent crime   
B) show the seriousness of crime?   
C) look into the causes of crime   
D) call for more government efforts   


TEXT F First read the question.? 32.What is the main topic of the following passage?? A.Differences between modes of learning.? B.Deficiencies of formal learning.? C.Advantages of informal learning.? D.Social context and learning systems.? Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32.? The term “formal learning” is used in this paper to refer to all learning that takes place in the classroom, irrespective of whether such learning is informed by conservative or progressive ideologies. “Informal learning”, on the other hand, is used to refer to learning which takes place outside the classroom.? These definitions provide the essential, though by no means sole, difference bet ween formal and informal learning. Formal learning is decontextualised from daily life and, indeed, as Scribner and Cole (1973:553) have observed, may actually “promote ways of learning and thinking which often run counter to those nurtured in practical daily life”. A characteristic feature of formal learning is the centrality of activities that are not closely paralleled by activities outside the classroom. The classroom can prepare for, draw on, and imitate the challenges of adult life outside the classroom, but it cannot, by its nature, consist of these challenges.? In doing this, language plays a critical role as the major channel for information exchange. “Success” in the classroom requires a student to master this abstract code. As Bernstein (1969:152) noted, the language of the classroom is more similar to the language used by middle?class families than that used by working?class families. Middle?class children thus find it easier to acquire the language of the classroom than their working?class peers.? Informal learning, in contrast, occurs in the setting to which it relates, making learning immediately relevant. In this context, language does not occupy such an important role: the child’s experience of learning is more holistic, involving sight, touch, taste, and smell—senses that are under?utilised in the classroom.?While formal learning is transmitted by teachers selected to perform this role, informal learning is acquired as a natural part of a child’s development. Adults or older children who are proficient in the skill or activity provide - sometime s unintentionally - target models of behaviour in the course of everyday activity. Informal learning, therefore, can take place at any time and is not subject to the limitations imposed by institutional timetabling.? The motivation of the learner provides another critical difference between the two modes of learning. The formal learner is generally motivated by some kind of external goal such as parental approval, social status, and potential financial reward. The informal learner, however, tends to be motivated by successful completion of the task itself and the partial acquisition of adult status.
32. What is the main topic of the following passage?? 

A) Differences between modes of learning.?   
B) Deficiencies of formal learning.?   
C) Advantages of informal learning.?   
D) Social context and learning systems.?   


TEXT G First read the question. 33.The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? A.restructuring economy? B.improving the tax system? C.improving the living conditions? D.reducing poverty? Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33. As a rule, it is essential that the poor’s productive capabilities be mobilized and the conditions for developing these human resources be improved. In this con nection, German development policy has developed the following three approaches: ? — Structural reform: Structural reform is the preferred approach for reducing poverty because it eliminates the causes of poverty rather than just its symptoms. It is vital that economic, political and social conditions which can alleviate poverty be established at national and international levels. Efforts at international level focus on fair conditions for international trade and competition. At national level, the poor must be helped through structural reform such as the introduction of democratic government, options for independent private enterprise, decentralization and agricultural reform. Development policy tools for realizing such reforms include political dialogue, political advisory services, structural adjustment measures and personnel and material support for reform efforts in the government, business and administrative sectors.?— Direct measures: Projects of this category are aimed at directly helping the poor and improving their living conditions or increasing their job options and earning potential. Of special importance are those projects which provide help for self?help in reducing poverty. The material support and advisory services offered by these projects reinforce the poor’s will to help themselves and help eable them to lead self?sufficient lives. Typical direct aid projects include the construction of simple housing by self?help groups, the creation of a savings and loan system for the poorer segments of society and support for women’s self?help organizations.? —Indirect measures: A project’s beneficiaries - its target group - are not only often difficult to identify clearly, they are also not necessarily all poor people. In these cases, the project in question must be integrated into one of the partner nation’s overall or sector?specific policies that aim at reducing poverty. A good illustration of this type of project is the use of advisory services to improve the tax system. Advising and upgrading the qualifications of personnel working in the fiscal system can lead to increased tax revenues which could be allocated for anti?poverty measures. In keeping with this focus, German development assistance concentrates on the poorest nations and on projects to reduce poverty. In 1993, some 10 percent of the commitments Germany made for bilateral financial and technical assistance went to self?help projects aimed at reducing poverty. Basic needs projects comprised 48 percent of all projects and almost 30 percent of the commitments made for financial and technical assistance were allocated for the world’s least developed countries (LDCs).
33. The three approaches mentioned in the passage aim at ____.? 

A) restructuring economy?   
B) improving the tax system?   
C) improving the living conditions?   
D) reducing poverty?   


TEXT H First read the question. 34.What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? A.Educational facilities in Africa.? B.Founding a university for women.? C.Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.? D.Women’s role in agricultural production.? Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34. Access to education facilities is inadequate in sub?Saharan Africa. And women and girls there face greater disadvantages. They are often denied education as customs dictate they marry early and have children.? Two Zimbabwean academics plan to open a university to help African women whose education was interrupted by either family commitments or financial constraints. The university will initially be in Harare, but will be relocated to Marondera, 80 kilometres east. The academics, Hope Sadza, former deputy commissioner of Zimbabwe’s Public Service Commission and Fay Chung, former Minister of Education, are to open the university this month. It will initially have 400 students.? Students will be split into groups of 100 and placed in one of four faculties: social science, agriculture, environmental studies or science and technology. The university is for women aged 25 or older.? The need for a university for women is more acute in Africa, where women are the poorest and most disadvantaged. When they do have access to education they often must endure sexual harassment. Most women drop out because they lack educational materials or the schools are inaccessible.? “In Africa, women till the land and produce the bulk of the food, yet they have no understanding about marketing,” Sadza siad. “Agriculture is another area w here we can empower women.”? The university will have a 285?hectare farm and courses will include agricultural production and marketing.? Women account for 80 per cent of Africa’s agricultural production, but have no control over either the resources or policies.? The university since August has raised about Z$32.5 million (US$591,000) in donations and pledges. The university will be open to students from across Africa. It will be the second women’s university - after Sudan’s Ahfad University - in Africa.
34. What is the following passage mainly concerned with?? 

A) Educational facilities in Africa.?   
B) Founding a university for women.?   
C) Agricultural production in Zimbabwe.?   
D) Women’s role in agricultural production.?   


TEXT I First read the questions. 35.Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? A.Xu Yangqiu. B.Wu Yifang. C.Tao Xingzhi. D.Chen Heqin.? 36.What is Guo Juefu?? A.A painter. B.A poet. C.A biologist. D.A psychologist.? Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36. Many presidents of the century?old Nanjing Normal University (NJNU) have put forward insightful and inspiring education theories and practices, which have had a far?reaching impact on China’s education history.? Jiang Qian and Guo Bingwen proposed a school?running principle that advocated the balance between versatility and specialization, liberal arts and sciences.? Tao Xingzhi, a well?known educator, carried out many important reforms in the university. For the first time in China, he advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers and opened adult training classes in summer vacations.? Wu Yifang, China’s first woman university president, emphasized normal education, regarding it as the parent engine and heavy industry of education.? Chen Heqin established a Chinese?style and scientific theory for modern educati on for children.? There have also been many noted scholars and artists.? Educator Xu Yangqiu was one of China’s earliest scholars to study American education theory.? Professor Luo Bingwen devoted himself to normal education theory and Chinese and foreign education history, advocating that teachers should be models of virtue for the students so that their behaviour guides the students.? Psychologist Guo Juefu is an important figure in China’s psychological history. China Psychological History〖WTBZ〗, a book he authored, has made its mark in international psychological circles.?Zhang Daqian, a well?known master of traditional Chinese painting, advised his students to read books systematically and selectively to rid themselves of worldliness, fickleness and pedantry. Zhang also pointed out that success comes largely from one’s own endeavours, but partly from circumstance.? Sun Wang, a poet versed in the poems popular in the Tang Dynasty (AD 618?907), told students to map out a long?term schedule for their studies and to work to wards fulfillment of their goal phase by phase.? Biologist Chen Bangjie overcame formidable difficulties to collect plant specimen and became ?China’s? father of bryology. Generations of talented educators have given Nanjing Normal University a fine reputation.
35. Which president advocated the lifting of the ban on women teachers?? 

A) Xu Yangqiu.   
B) Wu Yifang.   
C) Tao Xingzhi.   
D) Chen Heqin.?   

36. What is Guo Juefu?? 

A) A painter.   
B) A poet.   
C) A biologist.   
D) A psychologist.?   


TEXT J First read the questions. 37.The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? A.22 months B.20 months? C.16 weeks D.14 weeks? 38.If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? A.January 17??th?. B.January 15??th?.? C.January 29??th?. D.February 27??th?.? Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38. CHICAGO?Worldwide campuses.?World?renowned faculty.?World?class M.B.A. degree.? A world of opportunity. Limitless, lifelong opportunity awaits you when you attend the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, and now you can do so from anywhere in the world.? Experience international business firsthand at the only top?ranked graduate school with campuses worldwide. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives spreads 16 weeks of class sessions over 20 months so you can earn this renowned degree without leaving your job or relocating. Base your studies in Singapore; then collaborate with executives at our Chicago and Barcelona campuses. Learn not just the business theories of today but the business framework of tomorrow from the most acclaimed faculty in the world. Establish a global network of accomplished peers. And benefit for the rest of your life from the leadership training, the thinking, the relationships that become yours at Chicago GSB.? If you are a top?level manager seeking an unparalleled general management education, apply to the Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives.?And be among those who shape the future.? The University of Chicago Graduate School of Business? Where world?class leaders emerge.? Chicago GSB / Asia Campus? 101 Penang Road, Singapore 238466? telephone 65 238 2196〓fax 65 835 6483?email singapore.inquiries@gsb.uchicago.edu? www.gsb.uchicago.edu/execMBASia Please reserve your attendance by fax or email.? Jakarta 15/Jan,Tuesday? The Grand Hyatt Hotel 19:00-21:30? Manila 24/Jan,Tuesday Taipei The Shangri?La Edsa Plaza 19:00-21:30 The Grand Formosa Regent? Hotel Hotel? 17/Jan,Tuesday Kuala Lumpur 19/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Regent Hotel 19:00-21:30? 29/Jan,Tuesday? Bangkok 19:00-21:30 Singapore? The Grand Hyatt Erawan Hotel GSB Asia Campus? 22/Jan,Tuesday Hong Kong 27/Feb,Tuesday? 19:00-21:30 The Mandarin Oriental Hotel 19:00-21:30? 05/Feb,Tuesday? Tokyo 19:00-21:30? The Imperial Hotel
37. The Chicago GSB M.B.A. Programme for Executives is scheduled to be completed within ____.? 

A) 22 months   
B) 20 months?   
C) 16 weeks   
D) 14 weeks?   

38. If you are in Malaysia, when is your attendance date?? 

A) January 17??th?.   
B) January 15??th?.?   
C) January 29??th?.   
D) February 27??th?.?   


TEXT K First read the questions. 39.Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? A.Michael G.Zey. B.Stephen Bertman.? C.Don Tapscott, et al. D.Marvin Cetron et al.? 40.Which book is a collection of papers?? A.Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.? B.Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.? C.The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.? D.The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the Uni versity.? Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40. Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs? by Don Tapscott, David Ticoll, and Alex Lowy.? Harvard Business School Press. 2000. 272 pages. Electronic business webs have demolished the rules of competition. Innovative partnerships of digitally linked producers, suppliers, service providers, and customers are accelerating productivity and generating wealth in entirely new ways. This book offers a behind?the?scenes look at success stories such as Linux, eBay, and Cisco, and provides a step?by?step process for implementing an effective business?web strategy.? Regular Price:$27.50? The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University edited by Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley.? Bergin & Garvey/Greenwood Publishing Group. 2000. 270 pages.? This anthology of essays from scholars around the world describes how the forces of technology and economic globalization may alter what we think of as higher education. Topics include the virtual university, paying for college, feminist a lternative universities, the role of corporations in higher education,and the ri se of “multiversities”.? Regular Price:$65.00? The Future Factor: The Five Force Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human Destiny by Michael G.Zey.? McGraw?Hill. 2000. 289 pages. This optimistic vision of the human future argues that unprecedented opportuniti es for growth are emerging from breathtaking innovations in biotechnology, comput ing, robotics, medicine, energy development, and space technology. Powerful new forces altering society and the global economy include cybergenesis, the merging of humans and smart machines, and biogenesis, the harnessing of genetic technol ogies to improve ourselves.? Regular Price: $24.95? Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever? by Marvin Cetron and Owen Davies.? St. Martin’s Press. 1998. 224 pages. With advances in medicine and new gene research, the human life?span could exte nd hundreds of years. But a future of billions of people “cheating death” coul d have devastating impacts on societies, the economy, the environment, and fami ly life.? Regular Price: $21.95? Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory? by Stephen Bertman.? Praeger. 2000. 176 pages. American society is losing its memory: 60% of American adults cannot name the pr esident who ordered the dropping of the first atomic bomb, and 42% of college se niors cannot place the Civil War in the correct half of the nineteenth century. This loss of culture memory, as insidious as Alzheimer’s disease, eats away at t he soul of the nation, says Bertman, author of ?Hyperculture?. He argues that, t o build a culture worthy of the future, Americans need to move away from their m aterialistic, present?oriented lives and get more in touch with other dimension s of time.? Regular Price: $35.00
39. Who has written Cultural Amnesia: America’s Future and the Crisis of Memory?? 

A) Michael G.Zey.   
B) Stephen Bertman.?   
C) Don Tapscott, et al.   
D) Marvin Cetron et al.?   

40. Which book is a collection of papers?? 
A) Digital Capital: Harnessing the Power of Business Webs.?      B) Cheating Death: The Promise and the Future Impact of Trying to Live Forever.?      C) The Future Factor: The Five Forces Transforming Our Lives and Shaping Human De stiny.?      D) The University in Transformation: Global Perspectives on the Future of the University.?   

Part Ⅳ Translation (60 min)

SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH?
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

在人際關系問題上我們不要太浪漫主義。人是很有趣的,往往在接觸一個人時首先看到的都是他或她的優點。這一點頗像是在餐館里用餐的經驗。開始吃頭盤或冷碟的時候,印象很好。吃頭兩個主菜時,也是贊不絕口。愈吃愈趨于冷靜,吃完了這頓宴席,缺點就都找出來了。于是轉喜為怒,轉贊美為責備挑剔,轉首肯為搖頭。這是因為,第一,開始吃的時候你正處于饑餓狀態,而餓了吃糠甜如蜜,飽了吃蜜也不甜。第二,你初到一個餐館,開始舉筷時有新鮮感,新蓋的茅房三天香,這也可以叫做“陌生化效應”吧。

SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE

Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.

For me the most interesting thing about a solitary life, and mine has been that for the last twenty years, is that it becomes increasingly rewarding. When I can wake up and watch the sun rise over the ocean, as I do most days, and know that I have an entire day ahead, uninterrupted, in which to write a few pages, take a walk with my dog, read and listen to music, I am flooded with happiness.? I’m lonely only when I am overtired, when I have worked too long without a brea k, when fro the time being I feel empty ad need filling up. And I am lonely somet imes when I come back home after a lecture trip, when I have seen a lot of peopl e and talked a lot, and am full to the brim with experience that needs to be sor ted out.? Then for a little while the house feels huge and empty, and I wonder where my se lf is hiding. It has to be recaptured slowly by watering the plants and perhaps, by looking again at each one as though it were a person.? It takes a while, as I watch the surf blowing up in fountains, but the moment co mes when the worlds falls away, and the self emerges again from the deep unconsc ious, bringing back all I have recently experienced to be explored and slowly un derstood.

Part Ⅴ Writing (60min)

It was reported in the press some time ago that a few second-and third-year students in a provincial university decided to try their hands at business in order to get prepared for the future. They opened six small shops near their university. Their teachers and classmates had different opinions about this phenomenon. Some thought that the students’ business experience would help them adapt better to society after graduation, while others held a negative view, saying that running shops might occupy too much of the students’ time and energy which should otherwise be devoted to their academic study. What do you think? Write a composition of about 300 words on the following topic:

Should University Students Go in for Business?? In the first part of your writing you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should brig what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.? Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.


A GUIDE TO TEM-8 英語專業八級考試題型分析與應試技巧

聽力理解(Listening Comprehension)

題型分析與應試技巧

英語專業八級考試的聽力理解部分包括四個項目:Section A,Section B,Section C與Section D。前三項,考試時間共20分鐘。    ?

Section A:Talk ?

Section B:Conversation or Interview?

    Section C:News Broadcast?

    以上各項均由五道選擇題組成。每道選擇題后有15秒間隙。要求學生從試卷所給的四

個選擇項中選出一個最佳答案。錄音語速為每分鐘140—170詞。?

    Section D:Note-taking and Gap-filling?

本項目是由一個700詞左右的講座組成。要求學生邊聽邊做筆記。然后作填空練習。考試時間約20分鐘,其中聽錄音時間約為5分鐘,答題時間為15分鐘。?

針對八級考試聽力部分的特點,我們可以從局部理解和整體理解兩個方面加以探討。綜觀八級考試的聽力考題,我們可以發現所有的試題類型都是由what, who, where, when, why 和 how所包括的內容,即事件、人物、地點、時間、原因和方式構成的。八級考試聽力材料長短不一,或針對某一現象進行敘述,或根據某一事件展開對話(面試或訪談)。考生必須在一個大情景下抓住事情的要點和事件的發展線索后才能答題。大多數英語專業學生具有良好的聽力基本功,他們需要提高的是聽力的廣度和深度,因此,考生在日常的學習生活中必須有意識地多聽多練。同時,我們建議同學們在練習聽力時注意以下幾個問題:?

  

選擇適當的聽力材料

實際上,“聽”和“說”不分家的原則也體現在英語專業八級考試中。八級考試聽力均選自一般口語性較強、反映現代生活的英語資料。因此,考生可以集中精力多聽一些大眾媒介英語,進行實戰演習。所選聽力材料在難度上應低于閱讀材料,因為讀不懂的東西一般聽不懂。來源于報刊、雜志、電影、電視的英語是聽力練習的極好的材料。英語專業的學生,特別是高年級學生,可以通過看原版電影或聽電影錄音剪輯來練習聽力。一般學校都會有豐富的音像資料,許多城市還專門開辟了英語電視頻道,電視英語新聞對考生應付八級考試第三部分有很大的幫助。?

  

選用恰當的練習方法

練習聽力時,大家可采取“精聽”和“泛聽”兩種方式結合來訓練自己,前者的重點在于深度,后者則注重廣度。精聽的目的在于從what, who, where, when, why 和 how等角度入手,弄懂與之有關的所有問題,即所有細節性問題;而泛聽則是聽懂大意即可。通過這兩方面長期不懈的努力,考生最終能獲得用英語進行思維的能力。如果能做到用英語思考問題,那么做對幾道試題是不會有太多困難的,因為試題從廣義上也就分為兩大類,局部理解題和通篇理解題,前者屬于我們精聽的范疇,而后者則屬于我們泛聽的對象。聽的目的在于懂,那么,如何衡量自己是否聽懂了呢?一個行之有效的方法就是“復述”。我們在聽完一個片段后,可將所聽的內容重復一遍,如果具有較高的準確度,就說明真正聽懂了;否則需要再聽一遍,如果連聽幾遍還無法較為滿意地復述,說明所聽內容太難,應予以更換。?

與此同時,我們還應通過“讀”幫助“聽”,特別是在聽新聞方面。與其他聽力材料相比,

新聞具有其鮮明的特點。新聞的內容特別廣泛,幾乎覆蓋我們生活的各個方面。聽英語新聞

的最大一個障礙是對新聞詞匯的生疏。因此,在學習聽新聞的初級階段,我們可以閱讀一些

大眾媒體文獻,如報紙、刊物,從中積累一些新聞用語,一些重要組織的名稱如EEC(Europ

ean Economic Community)歐洲經濟共同體、IMF(International Monetary Fund)國際貨

幣基金會、OPEC(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) 石油輸出國組織、

NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration)國家航空和航天局;單詞如upsur

ge(高漲)、manoeuvre(策略)、escalation(升級)、allegation(斷言)等等。對現

實生活各個領域的詞匯都略知一二是聽懂新聞的基礎。新聞作為一種語言測試題型也是語言

在現實生活中真實運用的體現。在八級考試考試中,新聞的內容均為考生所熟悉的一般性政治、經濟、娛樂等方面的信息,在題材上不會給考生造成障礙,其目的只是測試考生從VOA或BBC獲取新聞的能力。與其他聽力練習一樣,提高聽英語新聞的能力的唯一途徑也是多聽。在英語新聞聽力訓練初級階段,考生可借助有文字稿的教材幫助訓練。考生在訓練時應提倡首先在不看文字材料的情況下直接聽錄音答題,在多次不能聽懂時再看文字稿。經過一段時間這樣的訓練后,多數同學的聽力能力都能有明顯提高。在達到完全脫稿就能基本聽懂新聞的要求后,考生可過渡到定時定量收聽英語新聞的練習。練習時還要注意我們在前面提到的一個問題,即聽懂是一個方面,如果能做到在聽懂后能將一則新聞的重要細節和大意在腦海里回顧一遍或復述一遍,這對我們聽力能力達到質的飛躍有極大的幫助。倘若堅持“聽”與“復述”相結合的練習,對大家的聽力及用英語進行思維的能力有很大的提高。?

八級考試聽力第四部分是一個將聽力和做筆記填空結合的題型。該項目是一個700字左右的講座,考生邊聽邊做筆記,然后完成填空練習。聽講座記筆記是學生學習生活不可缺少的環節,這一題型正是考察學生根據聽力材料做筆記并整理筆記完成工作的能力。八級聽力第四部分這一題型實際上分為理解、找出要點、筆錄和填空等步驟。值得注意的是考試中考生所需要填空的單詞均是有關講座內容的實詞,而不是語法功能詞,因為該項目的測試目的是考察考生對講座內容的理解。考生在平時訓練時可選擇聽一些就某一問題進行探討、有一定深度的錄音材料,一邊聽一邊就重要的情節做筆記,然后根據筆記寫出一篇摘要。考生如果能成功地做到這一點,就無須擔心考試中的這一題型,因為考試中考生用于填空的文字材料也就是基于聽力錄音的一篇內容摘要。?

以上談到的是考生必須在平時打下牢固的語言基礎,下面再讓我們看一下考試過程中應注意的一些技巧。?

  

1.預讀考題

聽力與語法、閱讀不同,語法、閱讀可以讀完再回讀,但聽力的內容是暫時、一次性的,因此學會抓要點、關鍵詞,以意群為單位理解全文,就變得相當重要。在八級聽力測試部分中,問題都已印在考卷上,同時在各部分題目前都印有一段題目指令,磁帶上也錄有相應指令,由于每年考試這部分指令都基本相同,考生只要熟悉這些內容,就可以利用播放指令的這段時間,或利用兩道題目之間的10秒停頓間隙,快速瀏覽一下已印在試卷上的問題和四個選擇項,從而獲取聽音前的思考線索和對聽音內容的背景提示,這樣在聽的過程中,就可以有針對性地有選擇地聽原文,從而抓住相關信息,濾除不相關的內容,減輕聽的負擔和記憶的負荷,以提高聽的有效性,同時,通過閱讀干擾項,多些背景提示,再分析四個選擇項的異同,以此作為線索,聽的時候,做到有的放矢。例如看到下面一題時,我們即可知道整個錄音很可能與搶劫有關。?

What strikes the woman most about the male robber is his ____.?

    A. clothes  B. age  C. physique  D. appearance?

我們一旦獲悉即將聽到的一篇材料與搶劫有關的信息后,大腦就很自然地啟動一些我們所儲存的關于搶劫的信息,從而主動權就掌握在考生手里。反之,如果不進行試題預讀,我們可能在聽完全部材料的三分之一后才知道其中心議題是搶劫。這就是預讀的重要性。不僅如此,我們還可以利用多余的答題時間來達到預讀的目的。題與題之間一般有15秒的答題時間,如果考生只用5秒就做好了第一題,那么余下的10秒就可以用于預讀第2題、第3題等。八級聽力考試的四個部分中,只有第四部分考生不能預讀,因為考生在做完筆錄后才發給該部分答卷即ANSWER SHEET ONE。?

  

2.仔細審題

審題似乎是一個老生常談的話題,但卻是十分重要的問題。這里所說的審題并非指考生完全看不懂題目,而是指由于審題不仔細而捕捉不到問題的核心。我們來看看下面一道題:?  The modern electronic anti-noise devices ____.?

A. are an update version of the traditional methods?

B. share similarities with the traditional methods?

C. are as inefficient as the traditional methods?

D. are based on an entirely new working principle?

以上問題的核心在于領會 modern electronic anti-noise devices(現代抗噪音電子裝置

)的定義,而不僅僅是抗噪音電子裝置),更不是一般的 anti-noise devices(抗噪音裝

置)。錄音中很可能出現有關anti-noise device在各個不同發展時期不同特點的信息,如

果不認真審題,就會出現張冠李戴的錯誤。另外,審題的仔細還表現在領悟特殊形式的題干

,如否定式Which of the following is INCORRECT,或排除式All the following are true EXCEPT,等等。正確審題是答題的關鍵,否則聽力能力再好的考生也不會有好的成績。

  

3.領會講話者的語氣

聽懂說話者的語氣可幫助我們回答問題。這一點在八級考試聽力第二部分(對話或面試)顯得更為重要。例如,Well, I’m afraid I do. But I might be mistaken. 表示了說話者不肯定的語氣。有時字面意思與說話者所要表達的意圖相反,這時考生更多的是依賴講話者的口氣來答題。如,I’d be sacked if I accepted your offer.所表達的是拒絕。講話的口氣是多種多樣的,它可以表達驚奇、猶豫、挑戰、諷刺、安慰、決心等,正確領會它們能做到事半功倍。?

  

4.聽與記錄同時進行

考生可在聽的過程中適當做些筆錄因為僅憑腦力無法記住長達數分鐘的討論或對話。考生在記錄時不必拘于形式,做一些只要自己能明白的簡單符號記錄即可,特別是眾多的數字、時間、日期、人名、地名更需要我們做些筆記。而且,八級考試聽力第四部分正是考察“聽 和“記”的同步能力。?

八級考試聽力第四部分記筆記填空是較為復雜的聽力測試項目,有其自身特點,掌握這些特點對考生大有好處。該部分錄音通常是一篇具有較強邏輯性的文章,從幾個方面論證或敘述一個問題。因為考生須填空的詞是基于整個問題要點及其重要細節的實詞,所以考生在記筆記時應重點盯住這些內容,而非繁文褥節。舉個例子,如果錄音中出現了關于一個問題的三四個例證,如為了說明  fast  food而列舉了  Kentucky  Fried  Chicken,McDonalds,Pizza Hut等等,考生最多記住一兩個即可。另外,用于填空的詞不一定非得是錄音中出現的詞,凡是在語義上與原文一致且語法上與填空短文相適應的單詞均可。本書練習題該部分并不局限于書中所給出的答案,可能的答案也許有更多,大家可自行掌握。填空時,考生一定要注意所填單詞的詞性準確無誤。我們發現,有的考生能找出一個意義相應的詞,但不是很注意詞性,因為該填動詞的地方一定要填動詞,如不能用intense來代替intensify。另外,倘若所填單詞在句首,該單詞首字母要大寫。?

    最后,希望廣大考生千萬不要盲目信仰應試技巧而忽視語言基本能力的訓練,因為技巧只不過是以扎實語言基本功為基礎的一點兒輔助性的東西而已。??

  

校對與改錯(Proofreading and Error Correction)

  

題型分析與應試技巧

校對與改錯是英語專業八級考試的第二部分。該部分采用主觀測試題型。該項目包含兩個部分:答題要求和一篇要求修改的短文。答題要求部分說明修改短文的三種方法:加入、刪去和改動某一單詞,并舉例說明。要求修改的短文長度為200字左右。短文的體裁和題材不超出學生所熟悉的范圍。短文內含10個錯誤;錯誤都出現在標有題號的行內。錯誤一般涉及單個詞;每行只出現一個錯誤。要求修改的單詞既有功能詞(如介詞、冠詞等),也有實義詞(動詞、名詞等)。錯誤既涉及句內也涉及句際。?校對與改錯部分的測試目的是檢查學生在實際語境中靈活運用語言的能力。該項目考查學生的語法和詞匯知識,但更側重評估學生的綜合語言能力。校對改錯部分要求學生在15分鐘內找出10個錯誤,并根據要求用三種方法之中的一種改正錯誤。?

這一部分要求考生掌握三種知識:?

  

1.語法知識

  

眾所周知,英語語言能力包括眾多因素,其中之一是語法知識。沒有系統的語法知識,學習者就很難全面、準確地以口頭或書面的形式表達思維或意念。對于把英語作為外語的學生來說,語法知識的掌握尤為重要,因為它有助于提高語言的準確性、邏輯性。鑒于此,校對改錯項目的一個測試點是檢驗高年級學生語法知識的掌握程度及其運用能力。一般地說,該項目中要求改正的錯誤里包括一些語法錯誤。例如:?

定語從句(1996年第三題),?

    情態動詞(1997年第一題),?

    冠詞(1997年第九題),?

    介詞(1998年第四題),?

    反身代詞(1998年第六題),等等。

校對改錯項目要求學生運用已學過的語法知識,來判斷句子的正誤,找出語病,并作修正。

這里要強調的一點是,八級考試的這個項目不是孤立地測試學生的語法知識;它更偏重學生

運用語法知識的能力,即怎樣把書本知識轉化成實際能力。因此,對于學生來說,在平時一

要鞏固已學過的語法知識,理清概念;二要注重提高運用語言知識解決具體問題的能力。?

2.詞匯與搭配

  

校對改錯項目的另一測試點是學生對常用詞匯、搭配和用法的了解及運用。比如:?

外層空間應為outer space,而不是out space(1996年第 5題),?

    做動作應為 perform an act,而不是 make an act(1997年第 8題),?

    姿式應為posture,而不是post (1997年第10題),?

    站起來應為 get to their feet,而不是get on their feet(1998年第 4題),等等。

   詞匯測試面涵蓋各類詞性的詞,同時側重考核它們的搭配與用法。歸根結底,詞匯測試部分主要是檢驗高年級學生在詞匯方面是否達到英語專業高年級教學大綱所規定的要求。詞匯的積累不是一朝一夕即可完成的,它需要在平時的學習過程中逐步積累,積少成多。因此

,對于學生來說,平時自己在學習中要注意擴大、鞏固已有的詞匯量,這點是非常重要的。

同時,在學習、掌握詞匯的過程中,特別要注意提高自己靈活運用詞匯的能力。?

  

3.篇章結構

在第1、第2點中我們提到校對改錯項目的兩個測試點:語法和詞匯。同時我們也再三強調,這個項目盡管涉及以上兩點的評估,但它不是簡單、孤立地檢驗學生的語法詞匯知識。

該項目仍著眼于語言的運用。也就是說,該項目旨在測試在具體語境或上下文中使用語法或詞匯的能力。在校對改錯這個特定的考試環境中,它所提供的具體語境或上下文是一篇200來字的短文。這篇短文由十來個在意義上相關聯的句子構成;而需要修改的語病都出現在這些意義上相互關聯的句中。鑒于這個特點,學生就要從篇章結構這個角度去判斷句子的正誤。也就是說,學生要跳出單句的框架,從語段(表達一相關層次意思的句子組合)的角度來進行判斷。    ?

從語篇角度看,校對改錯項目內的錯誤可大致分為兩類:?

  1)句內錯誤:一般對此類錯誤的判斷無須超越句子本身。如:?

996年試卷的第6題?

  water rising away from the depths of the earth during(6)_____?

  (刪去away)?

  1999年試卷的第4題?

  hour of hunting yields in average about 100 edible calories(4)____

    (把in 改成 on)〖FK)〗?

  2)句際錯誤:對此類錯誤的判斷要基于上下文之上,也就是牽涉到句與句之間的關系了。如:?

    1997年試卷的第5題?

    departure.This is what his body wants to do,therefore(5)____

    (把therefore 改成but)?

    1999年試卷的第5題?

    as an hour of gathering produces 240.(5)____

    (把as改成while)

對第二類錯誤的判斷要求學生從篇章角度出發,把文中的句子看作表達一完整意思的

有機體。只有這樣,學生才能找出錯誤所在。?

在歷年的考試中,學生大都能判斷出第一類錯誤,而對第二類錯誤(句際錯誤)的判斷準確率就相對較低。歷年試卷中難易度系數偏低的題目也大都為此類錯誤。因此,學生平時要加強對篇章的理解能力的訓練,了解、熟悉篇章結構的特點:語段內句子之間的關系、語段之間的關系;它們的類別;各種不同關系的表示法,等等。只有在此基礎上,學生才能靈活正確地使用語言知識,做到準確答題。??

  

三.閱讀理解(Reading Comprehension)

  

題型分析與應試技巧

閱讀理解是語言學習中最重要的基本技能之一,閱讀是獲取語言知識最直接、最有效的

方法,閱讀能力則是衡量掌握語言綜合能力的一項重要標志。學習閱讀,學會閱讀,提高英

語閱讀能力,是最終掌握英語,提高整體英語水平的必由之路。英語專業八級考試中也設立

了閱讀理解部分,而且閱讀部分在整個考試中占相當大的比重,該部分的得分直接影響到整

個考試的成敗,因此無論是教師還是考生都對此非常重視。八級考試中的閱讀理解部分主要

是依據國家教委批準的《高等學校英語專業英語教學大綱》中對英語閱讀教學內容和要求的

規定,運用科學的測試手段,檢驗英語專業學生對于高級英語閱讀能力和技巧的掌握,從而

檢查各有關院校對于大綱規定的教學內容和教學要求的完成和執行情況。?

應該說到了準備八級考試的時候,學生已經具備了相當的閱讀經驗和閱讀能力,現在的關鍵是多做練習,大量閱讀,通過閱讀來提高閱讀水平。如果還存在一些不良閱讀習慣的話,比如用手指著讀,默讀時出聲等等,就應毫不猶豫地痛下功夫去改正。下面列出了一些常用的閱讀技巧,僅作提醒之用。希望考生能仔細對照自己的情況,盡快改掉不良習慣,以便提高自己的閱讀效率。?

  

1.略讀

略讀(skimming)是常用的閱讀方法之一,其主要特征是選擇性地閱讀。通常的閱讀要求看到每一個詞,每次注目看1-2個詞。略讀不需要看到每一個詞,眼睛跳動的頻率和幅度都有較大的提高,有時甚至從上一行跳到下一行。略讀不可能使你對所讀內容全部了解,但是你能大大地提高閱讀速度,也能獲得大量的信息。?

    略讀的主要作用是了解文章的大意。經過略讀之后,你對所讀內容已經有了大致的了解,再仔細閱讀,這時你的印象會更深刻,理解更透徹。?

    大部分讀者不需要正規的訓練和指導就可以進行略讀。但是有意識地訓練會大大地提高

你的略讀速度和效率。進行略讀訓練的最簡單的方法是強迫自己在規定的時間內讀完某一篇文章,開始訓練時,可以把略讀速度定為平常閱讀的5/4倍,以后逐步提高。略讀的關鍵是增加眼跳的幅度,高度集中注意力,努力捕捉那些能引起注意或者你認為重要的內容。?

  

2.掃讀

掃讀(scanning)是以最快的速度掃視所讀材料,在找到所需信息時才仔細閱讀該項內容。如查找某個人名、地名、時間、地點等,也即在尋找特定信息、尋找具體事實、尋找答題所需內容時都用這種方法。?

  

3.研讀

研讀(study reading)就是仔細閱讀,對文章有透徹深刻的理解。根據考題,運用上下文、邏輯關系、背景知識進行判斷和推論。對難句的理解和翻譯用得著這種方法。 ?

提高閱讀速度的一個重要內容是擴大詞匯量。其必要性表現在以下幾個方面:?

1. 詞匯量決定了你的閱讀理解能力,詞匯量越大,你閱讀得越廣,視野就越開闊,你閱讀

理解的得分就越高。?

2. 有限的詞匯量必然會影響你閱讀理解能力的提高。生詞的含義只有在上下文中才能完全

展現出來,并易于被識記、理解、掌握。換句話說,是上下文給某個詞以特定含義,而這個

特定含義往往是字典無法提供的。有的人或許會說,我們從中學到大學英語詞匯都是通過背

生詞表來記的。但是這樣說的讀者忽視了很重要的一點:所學課文后面的詞匯表都是為

課文服務的,而且,教師上課時對某些詞或表達方式所舉的實例,實質上是為它們設置上下文。不少教師鼓勵學生背句子、段落、或整篇文章,都是出于同一目的,即要學生在上下文

中理解并掌握詞匯和短語。?

3. 多讀是擴大詞匯量的最好的方法。不僅要讀不同體裁的書和文章,而且要多接觸不同題

材,才能適應考試的需要。?

下邊我們談談怎樣解決八級考試中的閱讀問題:?

1. 找出段落的中心思想?

任何閱讀材料都有主要意思,即大意(main idea)。文字材料的大意有不同的層次。一個比

較長的句子可以說很多事情,但一般只有一個大意,可以用幾個詞概括;一個段落包括很多

句子,但也只有一個大意,通常是段落的主題句(topic sentence)包含段落的大意。通常人

們說“大意”指的是整篇材料的中心思想。?

非小說體的閱讀材料通常有比較明顯的大意,其結構也比較清楚。文章的開頭部分(introduction)會比較明確地指出文章的中心思想。文章主體部分的每一段也往往有主題句,通常在段首或段尾。有些文章的結尾還會對全文作一個總的概括。?

  

2. 如何對待閱讀中的詞匯問題?

閱讀過程中不可避免地要遇到生詞。大綱中規定允許有3%的生詞,也就是說2000個詞中允許有60個左右的生詞,但一般不會有這么多的生詞。有的人一遇到生詞就停下來查字典,有的則讀完一兩頁后查字典,有的人則完全不管生詞。其實閱讀中遇到生詞只要不影響你對篇章主要意思的理解,一般應該繼續往下讀。如果生詞的確影響你對內容的理解,查字典當然是一種辦法,但很不方便,而且頻繁地查字典不僅影響閱讀速度,而且影響對文章內容的整體理解。所以在平時閱讀時,遇生詞最好的方法是通過上下文猜測。以下幾條建議可幫助你猜測詞義:?

(1)看看上下文中有沒有生詞的另一種說法,即找同義詞。有時上下文會對一個生詞作解

釋,或者提供一些暗示。?

(2)看看生詞在文章中的詞性,即看這個詞是名詞、動詞、形容詞、副詞或其他詞類。另

外再看看這個詞在文中與哪些詞搭配使用,再根據自己的其他知識,就可以進行正確的猜測。(3)分析生詞的構成,尤其是詞的前綴和后綴。英語中很多詞都是加前綴或后綴變來的。比如你認識這兩個詞write和similar,根據前綴re-和后綴-ity的含義,你就可以準確地

猜出rewrite和similarity這兩個詞的意思。?

(4)看看同一生詞是否在上下文的其他地方出現,把兩處的語境相比較,也許能更加準確

地猜出詞義。?

(5)充分利用你關于所閱讀的內容已有的知識。?

    為了鞏固閱讀過程中的生詞,在讀完一篇后,你可以把本篇中最重要的生詞查一下字典,準確地了解該生詞在文中的意思。因為我們訓練的篇章都是大綱規定的題材,在真題中也

可能會遇到這方面的文章,甚至單詞。?

  

3. 推論出段落的隱含意思?

有時,為了某種目的,作者往往不直接說出某一意思,而是含蓄地表達。這種隱含的意思有時是篇章的主要意思。所以閱讀短文經常需要推論(making inference)。有時一句話的含義需要推論,有時整個篇章的含義需要推論。以下幾條建議可以幫助你進行推論:?

(1)結合作者的思想觀點、寫作背景進行推論。?

(2)尋找作者直接陳述的諸多事件之間的聯系。?

(3)仔細體會某些重要詞的含蓄意義及其感情色彩。比如politician和statesman的意思都是“政治家”,但前者有貶義的色彩,即“政客”,后者則沒有。?

(4)從作者的語氣、語調、措辭等文體特征,讀出作者的“言外之意”(reading beyond the lines)。?

(5)得出某一推斷后,盡量從上下文中尋找證據。?

(6)充分利用自己已有的各方面的知識,把文章中所述的事情和自己的閱歷或熟悉的事情

聯系起來考慮。?

  

4. 預測下文內容?

預測下文內容也是提高閱讀效率的重要手段。預測與猜測不同。猜測是對自己沒有把握的文字意思的假設,預測則是根據已掌握的信息假想下文將會發生什么事情。預測之所以能夠提高閱讀效率,是因為它使你產生某種“期待”(expectations)。帶著這種期待去讀下文,你會努力為你的假想尋找證據,你的注意力將更加集中在文中的重要內容上。?

當然,預測也不是隨意的,必須根據已經發生的事情或已了解的內容加上你自己的一般常識進行符合邏輯的預測。當你繼續閱讀下文時,你的預測要么被肯定,要么被否定。無論是肯定還是否定,都會加深你對原文的理解。以下是幾條建議:?

(1)如果你對段落的主題思想已有初步的了解,想一想關于這一主題通常要描寫哪些方面

的事情,這些事情在本文中會發生嗎??

(2)運用你的英語語言知識及語言在具體語境中的習慣用法,預測文章將要寫什么。?

以上的介紹沒有特別將正常閱讀和快速閱讀分開,是因為無論閱讀哪一部分的試題,都會用

到諸如 scanning、skimming的方法,但是由于八級閱讀分為正常閱讀和快速閱讀兩部分,有必要提醒考生,兩者所給的時間是不同的。通常,正常閱讀是四至五篇,答十五題。快速閱讀是六至七篇,答十題,而后者的時間只有十分鐘。所以,我們決不能在一篇上花太多的時間,只能采用跳讀或尋讀的方法來盡快獲取信息,每篇文章,先讀試題和選項,然后再有的放矢地進行閱讀。 做題時,如果遇到有些題解不了,或是文章中某幾句看不懂的情況,應該暫時放棄,先做其他題或繼續閱讀其他部分。在做完其他試題后,有時間,再來做這些沒有把握的試題。千萬不能為了一道題或一段文字而停滯不前。及時丟卒保車,才能保證總體成績。?

閱讀能力的提高不是靠短時間的突擊就能提高的,需要我們持之以恒,長期進行正確的操練。英語專業八級考試是科學的語言測試,具有相當的信度和效度,靠投機取巧是不可能取得好成績的,所以,我們衷心希望考生們能通過訓練,真正地提高自己的語言能力,在八級考試中取得好的成績。??

  

四.翻譯(Translation)

題型分析與應試技巧

英語專業八級考試中的漢譯英試題是對學生綜合應用語言能力的一個測試。它既是對學生漢語水平的測試,又是對英語專業學生四年專業學習之后綜合應用英語能力的檢測。實踐證明,我們的學生在四年的英語學習過程中,忽略了對漢語的學習,因而在對漢語詞語和句子的理解過程中出現了一些可笑的問題;同時,漢譯英測試也反映出學生在用英語表達過程中,由于母語干擾或其它方面原因,也有很多典型的錯誤。這里我們僅從理解和表達兩個角度,分析英語專業八級考試漢譯英常見的一些問題,并通過分析這些問題,指出英語專業本科階段漢譯英教學中,加強學生基本功是該課程的一個核心任務。 ?

一般認為,理解漢語對于漢語是母語的中國學生來說,不應該構成什么問題;翻譯過程的第二階段,即表達階段,才是問題出現比較多的地方。但是,在我們的學生中,的確存在著因為漢語功底不扎實而造成錯誤理解的問題。 這種錯誤主要出現在對一些不能夠從字面上推測意義的習語上,例如部分學生對“寒暄”、 “破天荒”、 “干脆”等詞語會產生錯誤的理解。我們有的同學將“寒暄”譯成了“coldly talk for a while”,這說明習語的理解對于漢語功底不深厚、光顧著學習外語卻忽視母語學習的外語專業學生來說的確是一個很突出的問題。 ?其次,學生還會出現斷句的錯誤。由于漢語語言的習慣,漢語句子在斷句問題上并不嚴格,因此對句子的停頓很多情況下完全取決于讀者的語感。學生對此往往認識并不充分,不敢果斷斷句,以為原文中的一個長句一定要用英語的一個長句來表達,因而出現跟原文風格不一致的譯文,甚至在組織譯文語言的時候出現很多語法錯誤。當然,漢語功底的欠缺、語感的薄弱往往也會造成錯誤的斷句,從而導致錯誤的翻譯。例如,2000年八級考試中,第一句話是“世界上第一代博物館屬于自然博物館,它是通過化石、標本等向人們介紹地球和各種生物的演化歷史”。很多同學用which這個關系代詞來形成了一個結構很復雜的主從復合句,但是在組織這個句子時出現很多錯誤,造成修飾關系不明的情況。如果我們果斷斷句,翻譯成: ?

The world’s first generation museums are museums of natural history. They introduce to the ?people? with fossils and specimens the evolution of the earth and various living organism on it. 用這樣兩個簡單句來處理,就可以避免語法錯誤,而且可以使

句子語義鮮明。 ?

此外,斷句的錯誤還表現在詞組間關系的斷定上,比如,“科學知識”和“科學技術”,后者“科學”和“技術”之間是一種并列關系。這種修飾和并列關系在漢語中并沒有形式上的分別,這種關系是一種意合關系,需要讀者發揮自己的判斷力和語感。很多同學把這兩個短語分別譯成了“science and knowledge”和“scientific technology”,由此可見我們在理解上還存在問題,學生們的漢語功底還不夠深厚。 ?

  另外,對原文的理解還需要結合一定的背景知識,例如95年八級考試漢譯英試題中提“奧

斯汀”這位作家,如果我們不熟悉這位作家,我們就可能連她的姓氏如何拼寫也不知道。再

比如說,“我的導師是亞裔人”(1998年八級考試),不能簡單地翻譯成“My tutor is an As

ian”,因為所謂“亞裔”,是指亞洲的血緣,但并沒明確國籍,根據上下文,卻應該是美國國籍,因此這句話應該翻譯為“My tutor is an Asian American.”,同樣的道理,在同一篇文章中出現的“除有一名來自德國外,其余5位均是亞裔學生”也應該處理成?

“...except one of German origin, the rest five were all of Asian origin”。?

1999年八級考試試題中也出現了類似的句子“現今180萬溫哥華居民中,有一半不是本地

出生的,每4個居民中就有一個是亞洲人。25萬華人對溫哥華的經濟轉型起著決定性的作用”也應該根據以上的理由翻譯為?

“Of the present 1.8 million residents Vancouver, half are not native, and one in

every four is of Asian origin. The 250,000 Chinese have been playing a decisive role

in the economic transformation of Vacouver.”?

由此看來,缺乏一定的背景知識,我們就不可能把這些句子處理正確。 ?

對于政論文章的翻譯來說,一定政治意識的缺乏會造成錯誤的理解和表達。例如,“振興”、

“統一”等,考慮到中國的歷史,我們應該將它們分別理解和表達為“revitalization”或“rej

uvenation”和“reunification”。再例如“個體戶”、“國營企業”、“三資企業”、“計劃生育”

等概念,要求翻譯時必須準確理解原意,然后在譯文中作適當的表達,因而需要同學們熟

悉官方的翻譯法。從這個意義上說,政論翻譯,尤其在譯名問題上,涉及到繼承傳統譯名的

情況比較多,因此我們應該多讀一些國內的外文刊物,如《中國日報》、《北京周報》、《

人民日報》(海外英文版)等,增強政治意識,統一翻譯口徑,這樣才能夠把漢譯英做好。

?

總之,英語專業八級的翻譯考試對譯文的要求是忠實原文和語言通順。翻譯的功能是將原有的文字資料

轉換成另一種語言,從而使讀者用其熟悉的語言了解原本用另一種語言表述的信息。鑒于此,衡量譯文的一個重要標準就是看其所轉換的信息是否準確,是否忠實于原文。譯者對原文

的把握、理解是關鍵所在。譯者要對原文的思想、語氣、風格有透徹的理解和準確的把握。

如果在這方面出現偏差,譯文就會與原文有出入,也就很難做到忠實于原文。?

質量高的譯文除了忠實于原文外,在語言上也要力求做到通順。具體地說,就是所譯語言要符合規范,行文自然、流暢,不帶有過多生硬翻譯的痕跡。就英譯漢而言,譯文應該斷句恰當,句式正確,選詞妥貼,段與段、句與句之間呼應自然,有一定文采。對于漢譯英來說,要求譯文的句式處理恰當,選詞妥貼,英語比較地道。在八級翻譯考試里,語言通順對漢譯英項目來說尤為重要。譯文英語不地道,不僅會失去原文的文體風格,而且還會誤轉原意。??

  

五.寫作測試(Writing)

題型分析與應試技巧

  

寫作項目是全國高校英語專業八級考試五大項目之一,它的分值占總分的20%,考試時間為60分鐘。該項目要求考生在規定的時間內根據提示寫出300字左右的文章。文章力求做到觀點清楚、例證充分、結構嚴謹、層次清楚、合乎邏輯、語言得體、無重大語法

錯誤。?要想寫好一篇文章,考生應該注意以下幾點:?

1.審題

在寫作考試中要寫出符合題目要求,高質量的作文,第一步是審題。所謂審題,就是通過閱讀寫作題目及相關信息或要求,正確領會題目的含義,了解題目要求,為構思合乎具體寫作要求的文章框架打下基礎。?

數年來八級寫作項目已形成自身的特色。這個特色就是,該項目內的幾個部分(觀點、情景、標題、寫作要求)具有內在的聯系,從而構成一個整體。因此,審題就意味著不是僅僅瀏覽一個標題,而是要兼顧其它部分。只有這樣,學生才能真正明確寫作目的,領會寫作要求。?

以1997年的八級考試寫作項目為例。該年的標題是 SOWING THE SEEDS,NURTURING GROWTH AND HARVESTING THE REWARDS。如果我們孤立地看題目的話,就很難領會該篇作文的具體要求和目的。但是,一旦我們把標題與前面的情景與觀點部分聯系起來,這個標題的含義就變得清晰了:它要求學生用標題所含的耕作過程來比擬獲得大學學業成就的過程。同時,對具體語篇模式的要求(即ANALOGY)也顯示在這部分中間。至于對作文修辭框架的要求,則出現在標題下面的一段文字中。?

總而言之,提高審題的準確性有利于學生理解題目含義,了解寫作要求,進而有針對性地構思作文內容、布局等。?然而,在歷年寫作閱卷中我們發現,審題有誤仍是學生經常犯的錯誤之一。歸納起來有以下幾點:

1)不熟悉八級寫作的設計特點,以為只看標題即可著手寫作。這常常導致在文章內容上出現嚴重偏差。

2)對情景觀點部分的理解一知半解,未經仔細斟酌就提筆寫作文。這往往會造成學生采用錯誤的語篇模式。

3)忽略寫作項目中對作文修辭框架的提示。這容易使得作文思路或結構混亂或失衡。?

  

2.行文的統一性和連貫性

一篇優秀的作文應該具有以下兩個特點。就八級寫作項目而言,這主要體現在作文的內容和框架上。按照寫作要求,一篇合格的作文由三個部分組成。第一部分包括作者的論點(THESIS STATEMENT)。論點應明確、清楚。第二部分是作文的主體。這部分的要求是通過恰當、合適的語篇模式(如:CAUSE AND EFFECT,COMPARISON AND CONTRAST,等等)來論證前面提出的論點。論證的過程要做到結構嚴謹、層次分明、合乎邏輯。要做到結構嚴謹,就需要學生在寫作中抓住中心,并圍繞中心展開討論。結構嚴謹的作文同時也應是層次分明的作文。為了使論證過程具有說服力,作文應采用一種層次結構。

所謂層次結構指構成語篇的句子或者各段之間在邏輯意義上存在著一種主從關系,它們或者是解釋關系,或者是因果關系,或者是總分關系。書卷語體通常屬于這類結構,即一個語篇往往由不同層次的語段構成。此外,作文應有邏輯性,文中觀點的闡述要合乎情理,觀點之間的銜接要自然、順暢。第三部分為作文的結尾。一篇思想內容完整的作文離不開一個好的結尾。一般來說,結尾部分的內容應為前面部分的總結。因此,這部分應與前面部分保持論點上的一致性和統一性。結尾部分忌諱的是牛頭不對馬嘴,前后沒有連貫性,因而破壞作文的完整性。?

  

3.語言的規范性和準確性

作文的思想內容都必須通過語言形式來表達。八級作文要求語言得體、通順,無重大語法錯誤。如果作文句不成句,用詞不當,語法錯誤連篇,就很難將作者的意圖表達清楚。?

但是,歷年來的寫作項目反映出學生在作文的統一性、連貫性和語言的規范性方面還普遍存

在一些問題。概括起來有以下幾點:?

l)  作文中的論點未展開。這主要表現為沒有按照要求在第一部分中闡明觀點,而是東拉西扯,寫了與題目有關或無關的細節或現象。比如在以IN SUPPORT OF DORMITORY POLICIES為題的作文中,一些學生不是開門見山地點明主題思想,而是列舉了一些寢室里的情況或評論一些不良現象。最后由于篇幅有限,就在結束時提一句寢室制度就草草收尾。?

2)  作文結構不嚴謹,段落沒有主題句,且句際段落關系不明顯。這種現象在考生的作文中帶有一定的普遍性。有些學生在寫作時沒有理清思路,按照一定的邏輯框架寫,而是想到什么就寫什么,因此文章顯得松散。?

3)  作文首尾不一致。作文開頭與結尾部分內容銜接不上,或自相矛盾。?

4)  作文缺乏連貫性(COHERENCE)。在對歷年考生作文的分析中,我們發現以下幾個現象:A. 差的作文中簡單句多,而好的作文中則少;?

B. 差的作文中從句和連詞出現的頻率大大低于好的作文;?

C. 差的作文中各種照應的使用低于好的作文;?

D. 差的作文中關鍵詞和同義/近義詞出現的頻率低于好的作文。?

以上部分簡單地討論了八級寫作項目的要求、預期達到的標準以及學生作文中反映出來的

一些帶有共性的問題。在結束之前,我們就如何提高寫作能力談幾點看法:?

1、寫作能力的培養要從最基本的做起,一步一個腳印,扎實地進行基本功訓練。?

2、就八級寫作項目而言,要提高駕馭文章整體思路的能力就要加強邏輯思維訓練,通過各類寫作手法的操練來提高這方面的能力。此外,要提高語言的準確性,學會使用各種語篇紐帶,如 LOGICAL、GRAMMATICAL、SEMANTIC CONNECTORS,使作文思路清晰,論點鮮明,例證充分,語言得體,真正達到寫作的要求。